a woman in laboratory


Jacob Lindheimer
Research Health Scientist

William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital

2500 Overlook Terrace

Madison, WI 53705

University of Wisconsin-Madison
Honorary Fellow

Jacob Lindheimer

Degrees and Certificates


Primary Research Interests

Gulf War Illness; War related illnesses; Post-deployment Health

Secondary Research Interests

Placebo and nocebo effects in psychological and physiological responses to exercise

Research Statement

Dr. Jacob Lindheimer, PhD is a behavioral scientist who uses neuroimaging, immunological, and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing techniques to study war-related illnesses. He is specifically focused on studying Veterans with Gulf War Illness , a prevalent (~25-33% of Persian Gulf War Veterans) and debilitating chronic multi-symptom illness that is primarily characterized by musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. Currently, Dr. Lindheimer is a Research Health Scientist and Co-Director of the Exercise Psychology Laboratory at the William S. Middleton Veterans Memorial Hospital. In 2018, Dr. Lindheimer was awarded a 5-year VA Career Development Award (CDA-2) that is testing the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise intensity on symptomatic (e.g., pain, fatigue, mood), behavioral (e.g., cognitive performance, pain sensitivity), and biological (e.g., inflammatory cytokines, pain neuromodulators) indices of illness severity in Veterans with Gulf War Illness. The long-term goal of this project is to provide clinicians and researchers with an evidence-based exercise prescription that is safe and tolerable for Veterans with Gulf War Illness.



1. Boruch, AE, Lindheimer, JB, Klein-Adams, JC, Stegner, AJ, Wylie, GR, Ninneman, JV, Alexander, T, Gretzon, NP, Samy, B, Van Riper, SM, Falvo, MJ, and Cook, DB. Predicting post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness based on acute exercise responses. Life Sciences, 280, DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119701 2. Lindheimer, JB, Stegner, AJ, Van Riper, SM, Ninneman, JV, Ellingson-Sayen, LE and Cook, DB (2021). Nociceptive stress interferes with neural processing of cognitive stimuli in Gulf War Veterans with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. Life Sciences, 271. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119653 3. Lindheimer, JB, Alexander, T, Qian, W, Klein-Adams, JC, Lange, G, Natelson, B, Cook, DB, Hill, HZ and Falvo, MJ (2020). An analysis of 2-day cardiopulmonary exercise testing to assess unexplained fatigue. Physiological reports. DOI: 10.14814/phy2.14564 4. Barhorst, EE, Andrae, WE, Rayne, TJ, Falvo, MJ, Cook, DB and Lindheimer, JB (2020). Elevated perceived exertion in people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52, 2615-262. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002421 5. Lindheimer, JB, Szabo, A, Raglin, JS and Beedie, C (2020). Advancing the understanding of placebo effects in psychological outcomes of exercise: lessons learned and future directions. European Journal of Sport Science. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1632937 6. Raglin, JS, Szabo, A, Lindheimer, JB and Beedie, C (2020). Understanding placebo and nocebo effects in the context of sport: A psychological perspective. European Journal of Sport Science. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2020.1727021 7. Beedie, C, Benedetti, F, Barbiani, D, Camerone, E, Lindheimer, JB, and Roelands, B (2020). Incorporating methods and findings from neuroscience to better understand placebo and nocebo effects in sport. European Journal of Sport Science. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1675765 8. Lindheimer, JB, Szabo, A, Raglin, JS, Beedie, C, Carmichael, KE, and O’Connor, PJ (2020). Reconceptualizing the measurement of expectations to better understand placebo and nocebo effects in psychological responses to exercise. European Journal of Sport Science. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1674926 9. Lindheimer, JB, Stegner, AJ, Wylie, GC, Klein-Adams, JC, Almassi, NE, Ninneman, JV, VanRiper, SM, Dougherty, RJ, Falvo, MJ and Cook, DB (2020). Post-exertional malaise in Veterans with Gulf War Illness. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 147, 202-212. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.11.008 10. Lindheimer, JB, Cook, DB, Klein-Adams, JC, Qian, W, Hill, HZ, Lange, G, Ndirangu, D, Wylie, GR, and Falvo, MJ (2019). Veterans with Gulf War Illness exhibit distinct respiratory patterns during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise. PLoS One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224833 11. Lindheimer, JB, Stegner, AJ, Ellingson, LD, VanRiper, SM, Dougherty, RJ, Falvo, MJ, and Cook, DB (2019). The influence of pain anticipation on brain activity and pain perception in Gulf War Veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Psychophysiology. DOI: 10.1111/psyp.13452 12. Dougherty, RJ, Boots, E, Lindheimer, JB, Stegner, AJ, Van Riper, S, Edwards, DF, Gallagher, CL, Carlsson, CM, Rowley, HA, Bendlin, BB, Asthana, S, Hermann, BP, Sager, MA, Johnson, SC, Okonkwo, OC and Cook, DB (2019). Fitness, independent of physical activity is associated with cerebral blood flow in adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Brain imaging and Behavior. DOI: 10.1007/s11682-019-00068-w 13. Falvo, MJ, Lindheimer, JB, and Serrador, JM (2018). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired in Veterans with Gulf War Illness: a case-control study. PLoS One, 13, 1-17. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205393 14. O’Connor, PJ, Loy, BD, Lindheimer, JB, and Covert, SF (2018). Adenosine A2A receptor gene polymorphisms (ADORA2A) are associated with maximal concentric contraction pain. Meta Gene, 18, 53-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.mgene.2018.07.013 15. Beedie, C, Benedetti, F, Barbiana, D, Camerone, E, Cohen, E, Coleman, D, Davis, A, Edelston, C, Foad, A, Flowers, E, Harvey, S, Hettinga, F, Hurst, P, Lane, A, Lindheimer, JB, Raglin, J, Roelands, B, Schiphof-Godart, L, and Szabo, A (2018). Consensus statement of the Inaugural International Symposium on Placebo Effects in Sport & Exercise (IISPESE). European Journal of Sport Science, 18, 1383-1389. DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2018.1496144 16. Salcedo, PA*, Lindheimer, JB*, Klein, JC, Sotolongo, AM, Falvo, MJ (2018). Effects of exercise training on pulmonary function in adults with chronic lung disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 99, 2561-2569. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.03.014 * These authors made equal contributions to the manuscript 17. Ellingson, LD, Stegner, AJ, Schwabacher, I, Lindheimer, JB, Cook, DB (2018). Catastrophizing interferes with cognitive modulation of pain in women with fibromyalgia. Pain Medicine, 19, 2408-2422. DOI: 10.1093/pm/pny008 18. Dougherty, RD, Lindheimer, JB, Stegner, AJ, Van Riper, SM, Okonkwo, OC and Cook, DB (2018). An objective method to accurately measure cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults who cannot satisfy widely used oxygen consumption criteria. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 61, 601-611. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-170576 19. Van Riper, SM, Alexander, AL, Koltyn, KF, Stegner, AJ, Ellingson, LD, Destiche, DJ, Dougherty, RJ, Lindheimer, JB and Cook, DB (2017). Cerebral white matter structure is disrupted in Gulf War Veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain, 158, 2364-375. DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001038 20. Lindheimer, JB, Meyer, JD, Stegner, AJ, Dougherty, RJ, Van Riper, S, Shields, M, Reisner, A, Shukla, SK, Light, AR, Yale, S and Cook, DB. (2017). Symptom variability following acute exercise in ME/CFS: A perspective on measuring post-exertion malaise. Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior, 5, 69-88. DOI: 10.1080/21641846.2017.1321166 21. Lindheimer, JB, O’Connor, PJ, McCully, KM and Dishman, RK. (2017). The effect of light intensity cycling on mood and working memory in response to a randomized, placebo-controlled design. Psychosomatic Medicine, 79, 243-253. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000381 22. Boolani A, Lindheimer JB, Loy, BD, Crozier, SC and O’Connor PJ. (2017). Acute effects of brewed cocoa consumption on attention, motivation to perform cognitive work and feelings of anxiety, energy and fatigue: A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover experiment. BMC Nutrition, 3, 1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s40795-016-0117-z 23. Dougherty, RJ, Ellingson, LD, Schultz, SA, Boots, EA, Meyer, JD, Lindheimer, JB, Van Riper, S, Stegner, AJ, Edwards, DF Oh, JM, Koscik, RL, Dowling, MN, Gallagher, CL, Carlsson, CM, Rowley, HA, Bendlin, BB, Asthana, S, Hermann, BP, Sager, MA, Johnson, SC, Okonkwo, OC and Cook, DB (2016). Meeting physical activity recommendations may be protective against temporal lobe atrophy in older adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 4, 14-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.dadm.2016.03.005 24. Straight, CR, Lindheimer, JB, Brady, AO, Dishman, RK and Evans, EM. (2015). Effects of resistance training on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sports Medicine, 46, 353-364. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-015-0418-4 25. Loy, BD, O’Connor, PJ, Lindheimer, JB and Covert, SF (2015). Caffeine is ergogenic for adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) T allele homozygotes: A pilot study. Journal of Caffeine Research, 5, 73-81. DOI:10.1089/jcr.2014.0035 26. Lindheimer, JB, O’Connor, PJ and Dishman, RK (2015). Quantifying the placebo effect in psychological outcomes of exercise training: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Medicine, 45, 693-711. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-015-0303-1 27. Herring, MP, Lindheimer, JB and O’Connor, PJ (2014). The effects of exercise training on anxiety. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 8, 388-403. DOI:10.1177/1559827613 508542 28. Lindheimer, JB, Loy, BD and O’Connor, PJ (2013). Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy. Journal of Medicinal Food, 8, 765-771. DOI:10.1089/jmf.201 2.0216

Professional Accomplishments

2021 New Investigator Award, American College of Sports Medicine 2016 NIH Young Investigator Travel Award, 12th International IACFS/ME Conference 2015 Excellence in Graduate Teaching Nomination, University of Georgia 2013 Outstanding Graduate Teaching Assistant Award, University of Georgia

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